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We ly reported that Fructus mume F. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus.

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Mice that received F. In addition, treatments of F. These indicated that F. Fructus mume extract, which is used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea and lingering dysentery in Asian countries, has been reported to be effective against colitis in an animal model [ 1 ]. The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of F. Recently, the effects of F. Rats subjected to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion with daily administration of F. Further, administration of F. It has also been reported that animals with chronic BCCAo showed alterations of cholinergic markers in the hippocampus [ 7 — 9 ].

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Neurodegeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons BFCNs has been observed in patients with VaD and Alzheimer's disease AD associated with loss of cognitive function. Hence, there is a possibility that the preservation of cognitive function could be due to a greater of intact BFCNs following F.

The BFCNs play a key role in the processes of cognitive function, including memory [ 1011 ].

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For example, BFCN lesions, which decrease acetylcholine Ach release into the synaptic cleft, result in learning and memory dysfunction [ 12 ] or loss of attention [ 13 ]. The duration of action of the neurotransmitter ACh depends on the activity of acetylcholinesterase AChEwhich hydrolyzes ACh after its release [ 14 ]. Therefore, inhibition of AChE activity is the main therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease [ 15 ].

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Choline acetyltransferase ChATan enzyme that synthesizes Ach, is a specific marker of cholinergic neurons [ 16 ]. Scopolamine, which has been used for inducing memory impairment adult chat wakita united states the screening of antiamnesic drugs, is a muscarinic ACh receptor mAChR antagonist [ 17 — 19 ]. The hippocampus, as part of a critical system for the formation of stable memories [ 2021 ], is particularly vulnerable to scopolamine treatment [ 22 ]. Scopolamine treatment increases AChE levels in the hippocampus [ 23 ].

Therefore, in order to examine the effects of F. In addition, based on the recent study demonstrating that the ethanol extract of F. Food and water were provided ad libitum to all animals throughout the experiment. All experimental treatments and behavioral testing took place during the light phase.

Dried F. The powder extract was suspended in sterilized distilled water at the appropriate concentrations.

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The flow rate was 1. The F. On days 8—14, F. Experimental procedure. On day 14, each mouse was sacrificed, and the hippocampus was removed for the analysis of acetylcholinesterase activity and choline acetyltransferase expression. The water maze consisted of a circular tank 1. The hidden platform was located 0.

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The maze was surrounded by white curtains, on which black felt patterns were affixed to provide distal visual spatial cues. The location of the platform remained constant across all training trials. Mice were placed into the water facing the adult chat wakita united states and were allowed to swim for a maximum of 60 s.

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The trial ended when a mouse climbed onto the available platform or after the 60 s interval had elapsed. If a mouse did not locate the platform during a trial, it was placed on the platform by the experimenter. During the training acquisition trials, search errors that are described in detail elsewhere [ 26 ] were used to assess the performance accuracy of spatial learning in the water maze.

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The time spent in the target quadrant was measured. A camera located above the center of the maze relayed images to a videocassette recorder. To measure the effect of F. Supernatants were collected, and protein concentrations were determined using Bradford's methods. After incubation with horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies, protein bands were detected using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection kit GE Healthcare, St.

Giles, UK. Post hoc analyses Least ificant Adult chat wakita united states test were subsequently conducted to determine the effects of F. P values of less than 0.

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The Morris water maze test was used to measure the cognitive function of mice treated with F. As shown in Figure 2 athe control mice showed improved search error during the training sessions; however, scopolamine-treated mice showed little improvement over the course of training. However, the scopolamine-treated mice that received F. Effect of Fructus mume on scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Scopolamine-treated mice that also received Fructus mume F. In both probe trials, vehicle control mice spent ificantly more time in the target quadrant than the scopolamine-treated mice.

In both probe trials, scopolamine-treated mice that also received F. Post hoc analyses were conducted to assess between-group differences. Similar to the of the acquisition tests, the mean time in the target quadrant i. However, scopolamine-treated mice that received F.

Subsequent post hoc analyses revealed similar to those of the first probe, with ificant differences between the vehicle-treated and scopolamine-treated mice. Furthermore, scopolamine-treated mice that received F. But there was no difference between scopolamine-treated mice and scopolamine-treated mice with donepezil treatment. AChE levels in the hippocampus were measured to establish if F. According to subsequent post hoc analyses, compared to those of vehicle control mice, hippocampal AChE levels in the scopolamine-treated mice were ificantly increased Figure 3 a.

However, compared with mice treated with scopolamine alone, those that also received F. Effect of Fructus mume on hippocampal cholinergic markers in scopolamine-treated mice.

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The in the bar graph indicates the n size per group. Western blot analysis was used to measure hippocampal ChAT levels to establish if F. Subsequent post hoc analyses revealed that hippocampal ChAT levels did not differ ificantly between the scopolamine-treated mice and vehicle control mice Figures 3 b and 3 cwhich is consistent with an earlier report [ 23 ]. However, F. The present experiment demonstrated that an ethanol extract of F.

In addition, F. Specifically, at all concentrations tested, F. Furthermore, the positive control, donepezil, was also effective, which is consistent with a report [ 27 ]. However, scopolamine-treated mice that also received donepezil showed no ificant improvements in the second retention test the second probe trial compared to scopolamine-treated mice.

This might be as a result of debilitating effects of donepezil administrated over long periods of time.

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Donepezil is high risk for accumulation due to its high protein binding and has a long half-life, which might cause serious adverse events in animals [ 28 ]. A of studies have shown that F. Most studies reporting the effectiveness of F.